General-Purpose X-ray diffractometer DRON-7

X-ray diffractometer DRON-7 is able to solve a wide range of powder diffraction tasks. Independent rotation around axes.

Goniometer
TypeHorizontal 2θ-θ
X-ray opticsBragg-Brentano/Debye-Scherrer/parallel-beam
Raduis R, mm200
Angular range, deg.from -100 to 165
 θfrom -180 to 180
Scanning modestepped/continuous
Scanning technique:θ-2θ, 2θ , θ, 2θ-Ω
Min. scanning step, deg.0.001
Scanning rate, deg./minfrom 0.1 to 50
Reproducibility, deg.±0.005 
Travelling speed, deg/min720
Recording system (base):
Detector typeScintillation 
NaI (Tl)
Counting rate, imp/secup to 500,000
High-voltage power source:
Power supply, kW3
Voltage, KV0-60
Current, mA0-80
Anode current and voltage stability, %0.01
Coolingair cooling
X-Ray Tube (base):
Type2,5BSV-27Cu
Focus, mm10 х 1.6
Coolingwater cooling (3 l/min)
Performance
Installation area, m25
Power consumption, kVA5.5
Weight, kg520
Power, V/HzSingle-phase 220/50
Overall dimensions (L х W х H), mm1050 х 1100 х 1800

Advanced options

 

Sample stages, Attachments and chambers
Stage for bulk samples to install samples with thickness of up to 10 mm and length of up to 100 mm.
Stage for cylindrical samples (capillaries) of 0.1-1.0 mm in diameter to for measure patterns in Debye-Sherrer geometry.
Two-axis χ,φ attachment for analysis of textures and residual stresses in polycrystalline samples and for the determination of crystal orientation up to 28 mm in diameter.
High-temperature chambers (up to 1200°С) for in situ tracing of phase transformation and chemical reactions in changeable environment.
The vacuum system
Autosampler for 6 positions.
Registration systems
X-ray registration system based on linear position-sensitive stripped detector.
X-ray registration system based on solid-state energy-dispersive Peltier-cooled detector.
X-ray optical elements
Versatile primary beam monochromator.
Versatile diffracted beam monochromator.
Different types of crystals-monochromators (plane, asymmetric, curved, channel-cut) from different materials.
One-dimensional parabolic mirror for parallel-beam geometry.
Other options
Closed cooling system (chiller).
BSV- 27…29 and BSV-40…42 X-ray tubes with different of focus sizes and different anode materials.
Soller slits with divergence of 1.5 to 4 degrees for collimation of diffracted beam when point or position-sensitive detectors are used.
β-filters for monochromatization of various X-ray radiations when point or position-sensitive detectors are used.
Software interface
 
Data processing – DrWin 

• Processing of diffraction pattern or selection 
• Background approximation (by polynomial or user curve) 
• Separation of K-doublets• Peak seach and determination of their anglular positions 
• Approximation of reflection profiles by pseudo-Voigt function (for the entire array or independently for each peak) 
• Calculation of peak heights and their integral intensities 
• Calculation of FWHM of reflections
Quantitative phase analysis – Quan 

• Overall analysis of multicomponent mixture 
• Analysis of n-component system 
• Analysis of sample with known mass absorption coefficient 
• Method of internal standard 
• Method of Reference Intensity Ratios (RIR’s) 
• Method of additives 
• Method of reduction
Calculation of average size of coherent domains and of microstrains – Size&Strain 

• Calculation of size of coherent domains and microstrains by the method of second central moments 
• Calculation of instrumental line broadening 
• Application of absorption correction to the samples with another composition
 Calculation of theoretical diffraction pattern – TheorPattern

• Simulation of diffraction patterns of multicomponent mixtures from structural data 
• Account for of instrumental factor 
• Account for texture and crystalline size for each component 
• Comparison of simulated and measured diffraction patterns 
• Integrated package of geometrical crystallography
Auto indexing of Powder Diffraction Pattern – Ind 

• Determination of Bravais lattice type 
• Choice of unit cell 
• Computation of Miller indices for selected lines 
• Bar graph of input diffraction pattern
 Full profile analysis by Rietveld method – Rietveld 

• Refinement of crystal structures from X-ray powder diffraction data of single crystalline phases and mixtures 
• Calculation of polynominal and physical background 
• Independent refinement of U, V, W, X, Y profile for different phases and for different groups of reflections 
• Refinement of unit cell parameters, atomic and thermal parameters, occupations of atomic positions for each phase 
• Choice of refinement strategy 
• Control of Rrefinement conditions 
• Calculation of five R-factors
Residual stress analysis – MacroStress 

• Calculation of peak angular position from center of gravity or from peak topapex 
• Correcting of correction matrix 
• Calculation of linear, planar and volumetric stresses 
• Calculation of stress deviations
  High temperature-X-ray diffraction – Thermo 

• 3D-imaging of measured data in “diffraction angle – intensity – temperature” co-ordinates 
• Calibration of the measured data set by internal or external standard 
• Refinement of unit cell parameters of the calibrated data set 
• Determination of phase transition points 
• Determination of thermal expansion coefficients (TEC) in different directions and thermal deformation tensors 
• Building of TEC figures
Qualitative phase analysis and access to the Ppowder Diffraction File database – Retrieve and Search-Match 

• Use of PDF-2/PDF-4 database of International Center of Diffraction< Data (ICDD) for qualitative analysis 
• Automatic or manual search algorithm 
Creation of user subbases for search facilitation 
• Addition of user standards into subbases 
• Qualitative phase analysis by different criteria, bases (subbases) 
Analysis of lines matched by angular position and intensity 
• Quantitative phase analysis by Reference Intensity Ratios (RIR’s) method 
• Access to the data base including search by selected criteria