Analysis of grounds

X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive general purpose spectrometer BRA-135F

Main applicability of XSFA in ecology is determination of toxic elements in soils (ground, bottom sediments), natural and effluent waters and in air samples. The most complete information on non-organic and heteroorganic noxious substances used in production and their permissible concentrations in various environments can be found in the book by N. V. Lazareva ”Noxious Substances in Production”/ Vol. 3. Non-Organic and Heteroorganic Compounds, M., 2013, page 608.

As for agricultural soils, regulatory documents limit the content of some toxic metals. They include Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr. The permissible limits 130, 2, 2.1, 10, 220, 132, 80, 6 µg/g are correspondingly.

Not only the content of toxic elements but the portion thereof which is soluble in soil waters (moving forms) are essential for soils. Permissible limits for moving forms are defined for Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. They are equal to 6, 23, 3 and 4 µg/g, correspondingly. After being withdrawn the moving forms may be detected according to the water analysis procedure. The total content of toxic elements in soils, ground and bottom sediments is determined according to the rock analysis procedure, or after sample solution – according to the water analysis procedure.

Analysis of Drinking, Natural and Effluent Waters

Spectrum analyzer EMIS-2

OES analyzer EMIS-2 is intended for determination of qualitative and quantitative composition of aquatic environments containing admixtures of various components: Na, Mg, Ca, Al, K, Cu, Zn ,Ba, Sr, Ag, Ni, Cd, Co, Pb and others. We are ready to expand this range of analytics by customers demand.

The analyzer’s scope of application are water treatment systems at water supply facilities of populated areas, in nuclear, thermal power and chemical industries, in food industry process, in environmental monitoring of environmental media and in other areas for compliance with SanPiN 4630-88 “Sanitary rules and regulations for protection of surface water and pollutions”, SanPiN “Drinking water. Hygienic requirements to water quality of central drinking water supply systems. Quality control”. The analyzer detects emission lines of elements in the liquid stream in the visible and UV area.

OES analyzer EMIS-2 may be successfully used for solution of various analytical tasks in the following applications:

  • real-time environmental monitoring of the water body condition (fresh- and salt-water bodies);
  • optimization of operation of de-salination plants, fine de-salination plants and composition control of make-up water for heat-insulating loops;
  • real-time hardness and chemical composition control of the natural source water to enhance the water treatment efficiency (fresh- and salt-water bodies);
  • quality control of preliminary treatment with clarifiers, filters and softening plants;
  • treated wastewater control;
  • composition control of the water used in utility systems, including drinking water;
  • using as part of measurement systems and special-purpose laboratories along with other analytical equipment.
X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive general purpose spectrometer BRA-135F

Maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) of toxic metal in drinking waters are given in Table.

MAC, mg/dm30.

As it follows from the table, these concentrations are very low for most elements, and almost all of them have been regulated by the relevant GOST until recently. Methods of these GOSTs is based on atomic absorption, atomic emission, or photocolorimetry.

But there are measurement methods for determination of weigh fractions of V, Bi, Fe, Co, Mn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn concentrations in drinking, natural and effluent waters by the X-ray fluorescence method after concentrating on cellulose DETATA filters, using XSFA. Table contains the data on metrological characteristics of some such methods.

ComponentMeasurement range
Water (mg/dm3)Air (mg/dm3)Soil (mg/kg)
Chrome0.01 – 1.00.0005 – 1.03.0 – 10.0
Ferrum0.005 – 1.00.005 – 1.0Not controlled
Bismuth0.005 – 1.00.0005 – 1.0Not controlled
Manganese0.005 – 1.00.0005 – 1.0300 – 1500
Cobalt0.005 – 1.0.0005 – 1.02.0 – 10.0
Nickel0.005 – 1.00.0001 – 1.02.0 – 8.0
Copper0.005 – 1.00.0005 – 1.01.5 – 6.0
Lead0.005 – 1.00.0001- 1.03.0 – 10.0
Zinc0.005 – 1.00.005 – 1.010.0 – 40.0
Mercury0.005 – 0.1Not controlled1.0 – 4.0

Note. Air analysis requires air filter burning and residual solution. As for soils, both analysis of moving forms and determination of total content (after sample solution) are possible.

These data have been obtained for the wave dispersion spectrometer but the same results are applicable to BRA-135 due to its high sensitivity

Analysis of Airborne Fine Dust

X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive general purpose spectrometer BRA-135F

MACs of some airborne heavy metals are given in Table.












MAC, mg/m3











Air samples are taken by pumping air through special air filters with the approximate area of 20 – 40 cm2 with the regulated speed of 10 – 20 dm3/s. Due to large filter area and irregular distribution of the controlled element over their surface, a regular X-ray spectrometer does not ensure their reliable measurement. After filter burning and ash solution, the content of heavy metals may be found by water XSFA methods. The existing GOSTs recommend water analysis procedures for the analysis of air filters after their burning and ash solution.

Analysis of Industrial Waste

X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive general purpose spectrometer BRA-135F

The RF Federal law No. 89-ФЗ dated June 24, 1998 defines the legal basis to treat industrial and consumption waste to prevent harmful influence thereof on human health and environment, and to involve such waste into the economic turnover as additional sources of raw materials. Special attention is given to waste containing toxic substances, first of all the following metals: Cd, Hg, Be, As, Sb, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and others. The main sources of harmful industrial waste are mining, enrichment, metallurgy, machine-building and chemical enterprises, the main sources of household waste – spent batteries and accumulators (Cd, Ni, Pb) and energy-saving fluorescent tubes (Hg). No doubt that even discussion of possible analysis of unauthorized disposal areas and dumps makes hardly any sense. However energy dispersion XSFA of ore bed overburdens, mill tailings and steelworks slags is quite appropriate.

Geo-ecological research

General-Purpose X-ray diffractometers DRON-7(M) and DRON-8

X-ray diffractormeters DRON-7 and DRON-8 are essential in control of the state of cultural sites and architectural monuments exposed to adverse impact of the urban environment, and for control of solid industrial waste, waste water mud in areas of hazardous production facilities.