Refractories and High-Temperature Ceramics

X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive general purpose spectrometer BRA-135F

Essential auxiliary materials used as lining for ferrous and non-ferrous metals and alloys furnaces are refractories.

Refractories are rocks, minerals and their mixtures with the fusion temperature of over 1500ОС that do not interact with molten metals. Detectable elements in various types of refractories are Mg, Na, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Zr. Requirements to methods for detection of these elements in these refractories are described in the standard [GOST 2642.0-86. Refractories and refractory raw material. General requirements to analysis methods.]. All these elements may be determined with spectrometer BRA-135 according to the procedure similar to procedure of rock silicate analysis method.

Currently the Russian Federation standard for X-ray fluorescence of refractory materials and high-temperature ceramics GOST R “Refractories. X-ray fluorescence analysis”, which is a translation of the international standard [ISO 12677:2003 Chemical analysis of refractory products by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) – Fused cast bead method] is being developed. The goal of Russian Federation’s national standard development is direct application of international standard ISO 12677, with due regard of specific features of refractories X-ray fluorescence analysis in the Russian Federation. The standard allows for detecting contents of Na2O, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, P2O5, SO3, K2O, CaO, TiO2, Cr2O3, Mn3O4, Fe2O3, Co3O4, NiO, ZrO2, WO3, BaO, SrO, HfO2, Y2O3, CeO2, La2O3, SnO2 within the range of 0.01% to 100%.

With specific features of Russian enterprises taken into account, this standard allows both the analysis of powder samples and sample preparation through fusion with lithium pyroborate, and concentration ranges of some elements have been changed. Analysis reproducibility and precision is better for fused samples, but analysis of compacted powder samples is allowed on most cases as well.

Cement and Ceramics Industries

X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive general purpose spectrometer BRA-135F

One of the most important construction materials is cement. Basic components of the raw materials for production of the most widespread cement type – portland cement – are limestone CaCO3, dolomites (Ca,Mg) CO3, clays Al2O3×SiO2× and pyritic slag Fe2O3× SiO2.

In addition Ti, Cr, Mn, Ba, K, P, S, Cl, F may be detected in cements, cement raw mixtures and starting materials. Requirements to the procedure and repeatability of chemical analysis of cement production materials are stated in GOST]. Appendix 3 to this GOST gives the procedure and requirements to XSFA of cement production materials. The recommended method of sample preparation is fusion. GOST ISO is based on XSFA only. Detectable oxides and elements: SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, P2O5, Mn2O3, SrO, Cl, Br.

Detection of 10 basic components of whiteware materials SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, P2O5, MnO) by wave dispersion X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is provided in standard [ASTMC1605 – 04(2009). Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Ceramic Whiteware Materials Using Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry]. 

General-Purpose X-ray diffractometers DRON-7(M) and DRON-8

X-ray diffractometers DRON-7 and DRON-8 are essential in cement production for monitoring of mineral composition of raw materials, clinkers and cements during a manufacturing process. The diffractometers are used for analysis of mineral composition of the construction materials such as asbestos, fire clay, brick, etc.